Data Tool Methodology
This tool displays global fisheries and aquaculture production data overlaid with certification and ratings data from the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), Global Seafood Alliance Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP), Fair Trade USA (FTUSA), Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), Seafood Watch (SFW), and Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP). The production data, ratings, and certifications are updated annually each spring. Please contact us with any questions or comments about the tool.
Production Data This tool incorporates the most up-to-date 2019 global capture and aquaculture production data sourced primarily from the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Higher-resolution datasets from the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMO - for tuna production) were incorporated to improve the accuracy of the data tool. All non-edible production such as aquatic mammals, turtles, or corals is excluded to properly display seafood sustainability. Due to a two-year time lag in the availability of global production data, the latest 2021 certification and ratings data have been assigned to the 2019 production volumes, and 2020 coverage is assigned to 2018 production volumes.
Data Tool Decision Rules
- Total volumes are capped at those in the FAO/RFMO seafood production dataset. This may cause some certified or rated volumes to be lower in this dashboard than on the relevant organization’s website.
- When certified volumes have been certified or rated by more than one Collaboration member organization, each certification is allocated the percent of reported production based on their percentage of their summed claim (e.g. MSC claims 10 mt is certified, FT claims 90 mt is certified = MSC gets 10% of reported production, FT 90%). These overlaps result in lower certified volumes in the ‘All’ organizations view when compared with those reported by individual certifications. However, overlaps in coverage between ASC and BAP are not accounted for in this dataset, so overestimation of certification coverage for farmed production occurs for some key species like shrimp and salmon.
- When overlaps in coverage occur, certified volumes reduce Seafood Watch Green, then Yellow, then Red, then Not Yet Assessed.
- Under Certification Assessment, FIPs and AIPs reduce Seafood Watch Yellow, then Red, then Not Yet Assessed.
- Under Ratings Assessment only reduces Not Yet Assessed.
- Not Yet Assessed is the remainder that does not fall into any of the categories above.
- T75 sectors are assigned to each relevant row in the production dataset so no overlaps or reductions need to be considered.
Aquaculture Stewardship Council Data Description
Data on production volumes maintained by the ASC programme are collected through third-party audits against ASC standards by conformity assessment bodies. Producers provide data for assessment reports that detail species produced, numbers of farm sites within a unit of certification (UoC), harvested product volumes from the previous calendar year, and farm performance during that production cycle related to environmental and social indicators. Only data from final audit reports are applied. The certification volumes reported represents annual production volume as reported to ASC in that month (not monthly production volume). The tool applies ASC data from a specified point in time. The total certified volume will fluctuate from month to month as farms enter and leave the ASC programme or adjustments from particular farm sites are received through surveillance audits. ASC data are provided for certified farms in aggregate at the country and species level.
- Species production at ASC-certified farm sites are matched to species occurring in the FAO production database at the country level. If a particular species produced by an ASC-certified farm site is not identified for the given country in the FAO production data, then ASC allocates that volume to a lower taxonomic level or species grouping that occurs in the FAO production data for the particular country (e.g. if no Salmo salar is produced, the volume could be assigned to Salmonids nei).
- In instances where the ASC-certified production volumes may exceed the species and country-specific volumes reported in the FAO production data, ASC defers to the FAO value in order to maintain the correct total global production volume.
- For ASC farms “In-Assessment,” production volumes are not reported by the producer but estimated based on average ASC-certified farm site production volume for the same species in the same country. Where ASC does not yet have any certified species in a country, but farms in that country are In-Assessment, we do not provide an estimate of the volume.
Best Aquaculture Practices Data Description
Data on production volumes certified to the BAP program are collected during a third-party audit to the Best Aquaculture Practices farm standards. At the time of audit, producers provide harvest volumes from the previous calendar year of production which are verified by the auditor at time of audit. Only data from final audit reports are applied.
- Species production at BAP-certified farm sites are matched to species occurring in the FAO production data based at the country level. If a particular species in production at a BAP-certified farm site does not occur in the FAO production data for a particular country, the BAP-certified production volume is allocated to a lower taxonomic level or species grouping that occurs in the FAO production data for the particular country (e.g. if no Salmo salar is produced, the volume could be assigned to Salmonids nei).
- In case the BAP-certified production volumes exceed the species and country-specific volume reported in the FAO production data, the FAO value is reported instead.
- BAP has only reported volumes for actively certified farms, and these values can change as facilities enter or exit the BAP program.
- It should be noted that some volumes have been excluded for confidentiality reasons (i.e when there are less than 4 producers of a species in a given country).
FairTrade USA Data Description
- FairTrade USA production volume data is extracted from audit reports verified by third-party conformity assessment bodies.
- Included volume is harvested or produced under Fair Trade terms.
- In exceptional cases when audit reports offer missing or contradictory values (ie. volume sold exceeds volume produced), the reported volume sold on Fair Trade terms is an estimate based on Fair Trade USA’s transaction dataset.
- When volumes produced under Fair Trade terms exceed the FAO value, the FAO value is mapped instead.
Marine Stewardship Council Data Description
Catch data is extracted by MSC from assessment and surveillance reports submitted from third-party conformity assessment bodies. The source data can be viewed on an individual assessment in the “Total Allowable Catch and Catch Data” table of each report on the MSC website. The MSC mapped data in each report to the individual units of assessment and certification (UoA/UoC) for each fishery.
The structure and granularity of data in the reported catch table can vary, along with mapping to the UoC/UoA. MSC applied the following decision rules when extracting:
- When the number of catch records is less than the number of UoA/UoC records, it is evenly distributed across the different attributes. These include the species, ocean area and gear type.
- Catch reported as maximum (“less than 2 tonnes,” for example) is stored as that maximum (2, in our example).
- When catch has been summed across multiple seasons, an average is applied to provide a single season estimate.
- The most recently available catch year is extracted per UoA/UoC. The actual catch year does vary and, in most cases, is two years behind the report.
When mapping MSC data to 2019 global capture and aquaculture production data, adjustments were made where records did not join explicitly on species, major ocean area and country.
Matching records that did not join explicitly required manual investigation. Where, for example, a species is recorded in two adjacent ocean areas in the MSC record and only one in the FAO, the catch is mapped to the FAO record. The same logic is applied to countries.
Seafood Watch Data Description
- Seafood Watch’s ratings data are pulled from the Seafood Watch Assessment Tool which is the online platform with which reports are created, scored and stored.
- Only currently published or in progress ratings with significant volume are assigned to the seafood production dataset.
- When method or gear type is not specified in the production dataset and the Seafood Watch assessment does not include explicit production volumes for each, the reported production volume is split evenly between Seafood Watch ratings (e.g. 25% each for the four applicable ratings).
- In cases where production data differ slightly from those specified in the report, 100% of the volume is assigned to the applicable rating if the difference was less than 10% (e.g. the production data has 1,000 mt and the Seafood Watch report claims that production volume was 900 mt). These differences are often due to the time lag and source of the data in the report when compared to the FAO production dataset.
Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Data Description
Data and mapping to fishery improvement projects (FIPs), aquaculture improvement projects (AIPs), and Target 75 were provided by SFP. A brief description on sources and mapping procedures for each of these programs is provided below.
- FIP volumes were obtained from fisheryprogress.org,1 or the specific FIP websites for FIPs not reporting on fisheryprogress.org.
- Only FIPs that are active and making progress (i.e., FIPs with a progress rating A to C, or formed in the past 12 months and not yet rated) were included. The information on status and progress2 of FIPs, as of June 30, 2021, was obtained from fisheryprogress.org and www.fishsource.org.
- The latest year for which production volume is reported may differ from FIP to FIP. However, and for the purpose of this mapping exercise, all the FIP volumes used in the analysis were assumed to refer to 2019.
- At the moment, regardless of the FIP scope (e.g., species, stocks, gears, and flag countries covered), only the overall FIP volume is generally reported / available. For cases where FIPs cover multiple countries, FAO regions, species, or gears, the volumes by FIP component (i.e., by species, gear, etc) were inferred based on the respective proportions of the total production.
- AIP volumes were provided by the AIP Directory, an independent and dedicated platform for information about aquaculture improvement projects around the world.
- Estimated annual production volumes are provided by AIP representatives from each of the eight AIPs currently published on the Directory via mandatory six month progress updates.
- The AIP Directory only includes AIPs operating at scales greater than the farm level. These focus on the adoption and implementation of policies that support sustainable aquaculture and improved performance at both the farm and zonal scales.
Target 75 sectors
SFP’s Target 75 Initiative aims to ensure that 75 percent or more of world seafood production in key sectors is either sustainable or making regular, verifiable improvements. The initiative aims to mobilize improvements in as much of the world’s production, as quickly as possible by working with industry partners. The initiative currently includes 13 sectors,3 which are defined largely by species. The seafood sectors included in Target 75 represent roughly 40% of total global production.
Mapping against the existing T75 sectors was performed using the sector’s most recent definitions. In 2021, the definitions and scope of some sectors were revised (e.g., the Reduction Fisheries sector is currently named Global Marine Ingredients, and includes additional species groups and countries). More information on Target 75 and each of the sector’s latest definitions will be available soon on the SFP website’s T75 page.
1 Most (>90%) of the FIPs now report their information in fisheryprogress.org. This includes the estimated FIP volume, which was used in this analysis. For detailed information about the scope (species, jurisdiction, flag countries), progress, or other specific attributes, of individual FIPs, please visit www.FisheryProgress.org, https://www.fishsource.org/improvement-project, or the respective FIP pages (for FIPs not reporting in FisheryProgress). (Back to citation)
3 The Target 75 sectors are: Classic (wild whitefish), Coldwater crab, Farmed whitefish (tilapia-pangasius), Global Marine Ingredients (GMI), Large pelagics, Large shrimp, Octopus, Salmon, Small shrimp, Snapper-Grouper, Squid, Swimming crab, and Tuna. (Back to citation)