Thailand | Human Rights Abuses and Risks

Last Updated: July 2023

EVIDENCE | Forced labor, child labor, and/or human trafficking in seafood

Source Details
U.S. Department of Labor
2022 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
Evidence of forced labor in fish goods, and child and forced labor in shrimp.
U.S. Department of Labor
2021 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
Evidence of child labor found in processing shrimp and seafood; and fishing, including work performed in fisheries and on sea vessels. Evidence of forced child labor found in shrimp and seafood processing; fishing, including fisheries.
U.S. Department of State
2022 Trafficking in Persons Report
Evidence of trafficking in the fishing sector, including forced labor on Thai and foreign-owned fishing boats. Fishermen have experienced non- or under-payment of wages, long working hours, lack of food or medical supplies, physical or verbal abuse, retention of identity documents, and wage deductions. Research indicates that between 14 and 18 percent of migrant fishermen were exploited in the Thai fishing industry.
Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch
Seafood Social Risk Tool Profile
Evidence identified at the seafood-industry and processing level in the Thailand country risk profile.


Risk Factor​ Status Details
Flag of Convenience
(International Transport Workers Federation)
No Flags of Convenience are connected to the occurrence of human trafficking and forced labor in fishing. Vessels registered to Flag of Convenience states may lack a legitimate connection to the flag state and may be subject to less rigorous management and oversight by the flag state.
Active yellow or red card for failing to tackle illegal fishing
(European Union)
No The European Union gives countries yellow and red cards for failing in their requirements under international law to take action against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. There is evidence linking IUU fishing to an increased risk of human trafficking and forced labor on board fishing vessels.
Failure to ratify key treaties and international labor conventions

Ratifying key treaties and international labor conventions indicates a country’s commitment to uphold international standards.

  • Port State Measures Agreement: Ratified
  • ILO C188 Work in Fishing Convention: Ratified
  • ILO Core Labor Conventions: Not ratified 3 of 10
    • C087 - Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
    • C098 - Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention
    • C155 - Occupational Safety and Health Convention