Indonesia | Human Rights Abuses and Risks

Last Updated: July 2023

EVIDENCE | Forced labor, child labor, and/or human trafficking in seafood

Source Details
U.S. Department of Labor
2022 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
Evidence of child and forced labor in fish goods.
U.S. Department of Labor
2021 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
Evidence of child labor found in fishing, including on fishing vessels, in processing facilities, and on offshore platforms. Evidence of forced child labor found in fishing.
U.S. Department of State
2022 Trafficking in Persons Report
Evidence of trafficking in the fishing and processing sectors, including on fishing vessels throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Fishermen have reported low or unpaid salaries and coercive tactics such as contract discrepancies, document retention, restricted communication, poor living and working conditions, threats of physical violence, and physical and sexual abuse. In 2020, several forced labor victims aboard fishing vessels detailed their exploitation via social media, authorities secured the release of 157 fishermen and confirmed that 12 Indonesian workers had died aboard the vessels between November 2019 and August 2020.
Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch
Seafood Social Risk Tool Profile
Evidence identified at the seafood-industry level in the Indonesia country risk profile.
Additional civil society organization reports documenting human rights abuses:
2019, Environmental Justice Foundation, Blood and Water
2019, Issara Institute, Labour Risks in the Thai and Indonesian Fishing Industries


Risk Factor​ Status Details
Flag of Convenience
(International Transport Workers Federation)
No Flags of Convenience are connected to the occurrence of human trafficking and forced labor in fishing. Vessels registered to Flag of Convenience states may lack a legitimate connection to the flag state and may be subject to less rigorous management and oversight by the flag state.
Active yellow or red card for failing to tackle illegal fishing
(European Union)
No The European Union gives countries yellow and red cards for failing in their requirements under international law to take action against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. There is evidence linking IUU fishing to an increased risk of human trafficking and forced labor on board fishing vessels.
Failure to ratify key treaties and international labor conventions

Ratifying key treaties and international labor conventions indicates a country’s commitment to uphold international standards.

  • Port State Measures Agreement: Ratified
  • ILO C188 Work in Fishing Convention: Not ratified
  • ILO Core Labor Conventions: Not ratified 1 of 10
    • C155 - Occupational Safety and Health Convention